Ambit of sec 31 of the INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT

Home Forums Estoppel and Admissions Ambit of sec 31 of the INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT

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      LAVANITA CHITYALA

      Section 31 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 provides that admissions are not conclusive proof but may operate as estoppels. This section gives the evidentiary value of admissions containing in Sections 17 to 30 of the Evidence Act.
      Admission defined under section 17 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, is a statement that is declared orally or documentary or contained in the electronic form made by any person in the matter of fact in issue or relevant fact.
      Admission by party to the proceeding or his agent, section 18 of the Indian Evidence Act states that any person deriving the statement by the party to the proceeding or agent of the parties whom the court authorized unless statement made by party interested in subject matter or person from whom interest derived.
      Section 19 of the Indian evidence act 1872, that the statement made by persons whose position or liability, it is necessary to prove against any party as admissions.
      Section 20 of the Indian evidence act,1872 referred for information in reference to a matter in dispute are admissions by persons to the party in the suit.
      Section 21 of the Indian evidence act 1872- Proof of admissions against persons making them, and by or on their behalf.
      Sec 22 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872- Oral admissions as to the content of a document are not relevant unless and until the party proves to give secondary evidence of documents under the rules contained or question to be produced.
      Sec 23 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 -Admissions in civil cases is irrelevant unless and until the parties express that evidence of it is not to be given, or else the court can conclude that the parties decided not to give the evidence.
      Sec 24 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 – Confession caused by inducement, threat, or promise, when irrelevant in a criminal proceeding
      Sec 25 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 – Confession to police officer not to be proved
      Sec 26 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 -Confession by accused while in the custody of police not to be proved against him unless it is made in the immediate presence of a Magistrate shall be proved
      Sec 27 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 – How much information received from the accused may be proved
      Sec 28 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872- Confession made after removal of impression caused by inducement, threat, or promise relevant
      Sec 29 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872 – Confession otherwise relevant not to become irrelevant because of the promise of secrecy, etc.
      Sec 30 of the Indian Evidence Act,1872- Consideration of proved confession affecting person making it and others jointly under trial for the same offense.

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